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Imaging of Bones and Joints A Concise Multimodality Approach PDF download

1 Acute Trauma and Overuse Injuries: Essentials 2 (52)
1.1 Normal Skeletal Development, Variations, 2 (2)
and Transitions to Pathologic Conditions
W. Michl
1.1.1 Normal Skeletal Development 2 (1)
1.1.2 Variations and Disturbances of 3 (1)
Skeletal Development
1.1.3 Transitions to Pathologic States 4 (1)
1.2 Fractures: Definition, Types, and 4 (4)
Classifications
K. Bohndorf
1.2.1 Definition and Classification 4 (2)
1.2.2 Fracture Types 6 (1)
1.2.3 Classifications 6 (2)
1.3 Fractures in Children 8 (4)
W. Michl
1.3.1 Special Features of Fractures in 8 (2)
Children
1.3.2 Battered-Child Syndrome 10 (2)
1.4 Fractures of the Articular Surfaces: 12 (4)
Subchondral, Chondral, and Osteochondral
Fractures
K. Bohndorf
S. Trattnig
1.4.1 Subchondral Fracture 14 (1)
1.4.2 Chondral Fracture 14 (1)
1.4.3 Osteochondral Fracture 14 (2)
1.5 Stress and Insufficiency Fractures 16 (8)
K. Bohndorf
1.5.1 Classification 16 (4)
1.5.2 Insufficiency Fractures and 20 (1)
Destructive Arthropathy
1.5.3 Pathologic Fractures 20 (2)
1.5.4 Transient Osteoporosis and 22 (2)
Transient Bone Marrow Edema
1.6 Fracture Healing 24 (12)
1.6.1 Primary Fracture Healing (Direct 24 (1)
Cortical Reconstruction)
K. Bohndorf
1.6.2 Secondary Fracture Healing (Fracture 24 (2)
Healing by Callus Formation)
K. Bohndorf
1.6.3 Radiological Assessment after 26 (6)
Fracture Fixation of the Peripheral Skeleton
E. Knoepfle
1.6.4 Radiological Assessment after 32 (4)
Implantation of a joint Prosthesis in the
Peripheral Skeleton
E. Knoepfle
1.7 Complications after Fractures 36 (8)
1.7.1 Delayed Union, Nonunion, and 36 (4)
Posttraumatic Bone Cyst Formation
K. Bohndorf
1.7.2 Posttraumatic Disturbances of Growth 40 (1)
in Children and Adolescents
W. Michl
1.7.3 Disuse Osteoporosis 40 (1)
K. Bohndorf
1.7.4 Complex Regional Pain Syndrome 40 (2)
K. Bohndorf
1.7.5 Posttraumatic Osteoarthritis 42 (2)
K. Bohndorf
1.8 Traumatic and Overuse Injuries to 44 (8)
Muscles, Tendons, and Tendon Insertions
K. Bohndorf
A. Seifarth
1.8.1 Muscles 44 (1)
1.8.2 Tendons 44 (4)
1.8.3 Tendon Insertions (Enthesopathy) 48 (4)
1.9 Practical Advice on Diagnostic 52 (2)
Radiography in Traumatology
K. Bohndorf
1.9.1 Report of Findings 52 (1)
1.9.2 Follow-Up Reviews 53 (1)
1.9.3 What to Avoid 53 (1)
2 Acute Trauma and Chronic Overuse (According 54 (174)
to Region)
2.1 Cranial Vault, Facial Bones, and Skull 54 (5)
Base
H. Imhof
N. Jorden
2.1.1 Fractures of the Cranial Vault 54 (1)
2.1.2 Basilar Skull Fractures 54 (1)
2.1.3 Fractures of the Petrous Bone 55 (1)
2.1.4 Facial Bone Fractures 56 (3)
2.2 Spine 59 (27)
2.2.1 Anatomy, Variants, Technique, and 59 (1)
Indications
T. Grieser
2.2.2 Mechanisms of Injury and 60 (10)
Classifications
T. Grieser
2.2.3 Special Traumatology of the Cervical 70 (4)
Spine and the Craniocervical Junction
T. Grieser
2.2.4 Injury Patterns of the “Stiff” Spine 74 (2)
T. Grieser
2.2.5 Stable or Unstable Fracture? 76 (1)
T. Grieser
2.2.6 Fresh or Old Fracture? 77 (1)
T. Grieser
2.2.7 Differential Diagnosis “Osteoporotic 78 (1)
Versus Pathologic Fracture”
T. Grieser
2.2.8 Stress Phenomena in the Spine: Stress 78 (1)
Reaction and Stress Fracture
(Spondylolysis) of the Neural Arches
T. Grieser
2.2.9 Value of MRI in Acute Trauma 78 (4)
T. Grieser
2.2.10 Radiological Assessment after 82 (4)
Surgery of the Spine
R. Fessl
2.3 Pelvis 86 (8)
2.3.1 Fractures of the Pelvic Ring 86 (2)
E.J. Mayr
2.3.2 Acetabular Fractures 88 (3)
E.J. Mayr
2.3.3 Fatigue Fractures of the Pelvis 91 (1)
E.J. Mayr
2.3.4 Hip Dislocation/Fracture Dislocations 92 (1)
of the Hip
E.J. Mayr
2.3.5 Pubalgia (Osteitis Pubis) 92 (2)
K. Bohndorf
2.4 Shoulder Joint 94 (22)
K. Woertler
2.4.1 Anatomy, Variants, and Technique 94 (2)
2.4.2 Impingement 96 (2)
2.4.3 Rotator Cuff Pathology and Biceps 98 (4)
Tendinopathy
2.4.4 Pathology of the Rotator Interval 102(2)
2.4.5 Shoulder Instability 104(6)
2.4.6 Other Labral Pathology 110(2)
2.4.7 Postoperative Complications 112(4)
2.5 Shoulder Girdle and Thoracic Wall 116(4)
N. Jorden
2.5.1 Sternoclavicular Dislocation 116(1)
2.5.2 Clavicular Fracture 116(1)
2.5.3 Acromioclavicular Dislocation 116(2)
2.5.4 Scapular Fracture 118(1)
2.5.5 Sternal and Rib Fractures 118(1)
2.5.6 Stress Phenomena of the 118(1)
Acromioclavicular Joint
2.5.7 Posttraumatic Conditions Secondary 118(2)
to Injuries of the Shoulder Girdle
2.6 Upper Arm 120(6)
2.6.1 Proximal Humeral Fractures 120(1)
N. Jorden
2.6.2 Humeral Shaft Fractures 120(2)
N. Jorden
2.6.3 Distal Humeral Fractures 122(2)
N. Jorden
2.6.4 Radiological Assessment after Surgery 124(2)
of the Upper Arm
E. Knoepfle
2.7 Elbow Joint 126(10)
E. McNally
O. Ertl
K. Bohndorf
2.7.1 Medial Compartment 126(1)
2.7.2 Lateral Compartment 126(4)
2.7.3 Anterior Compartment 130(1)
2.7.4 Posterior Compartment 130(2)
2.7.5 Osteochondral Lesions: Traumatic 132(2)
Lesions, Panner’s Disease, and
Osteochondritis Dissecans
2.7.6 Neuropathies 134(2)
2.8 Forearm 136(11)
A. Altenburger
2.8.1 Proximal Fractures of the Forearm 136(1)
2.8.2 Radial Head and Neck Fractures 136(2)
2.8.3 Shaft Fractures of the Forearm 138(2)
2.8.4 Distal Forearm Fractures 140(4)
2.8.5 Instability of the Distal 144(1)
Radioulnar Joint
2.8.6 Ulnar Impingement Syndrome 145(1)
2.8.7 Radiological Assessment after 146(1)
Surgery of the Forearm
E. Knoepfle
2.9 The Wrist 147(13)
J. Zentner
2.9.1 Anatomy, Variants, Technique, and 147(1)
Indications
2.9.2 Fractures and Dislocations and 148(4)
Their Complications
2.9.3 Carpal Instabilities and 152(4)
Malalignments
2.9.4 Triangular Fibrocartilage Complex 156(2)
2.9.5 Ulnocarpal Impaction Syndrome 158(1)
2.9.6 Tendons of the Wrist 158(2)
2.10 Metacarpals and Fingers 160(4)
J. Zentner
2.10.1 Anatomy, Technique, and Indications 160(1)
2.10.2 Fractures 160(1)
2.10.3 Tendon and Ligament Lesions 160(4)
2.11 Hip Joint 164(10)
2.11.1 Anatomy, Variants, and Techniques 164(2)
C.W.A. Pfirrmann
R. Sutter
2.11.2 Fractures 166(1)
C.W.A. Pfirrmann
R. Sutter
2.11.3 Femoroacetabular Impingement 166(2)
C.W.A. Pfirrmann
R. Sutter
2.11.4 Labral Lesions 168(1)
C.W.A. Pfirrmann
R. Sutter
2.11.5 Chondromalacia and Synovitis 168(2)
C.W.A. Pfirrmann
R. Sutter
2.11.6 Muscle and Tendon Injuries 170(2)
C.W.A. Pfirrmann
R. Sutter
2.11.7 Slipped Capital Femoral Epiphysis 172(1)
C.W.A. Pfirrmann
R. Sutter
2.11.8 Radiological Assessment after 172(2)
Fracture Fixation and Joint Replacement of
the Hip
W. Michl
2.12 Femur and Soft Tissues of the Thigh 174(6)
2.12.1 Anatomy and Technique 174(1)
O. Ertl
2.12.2 Fractures 174(3)
O. Ertl
2.12.3 Muscle Injuries of the Thigh 177(1)
O. Ertl
2.12.4 Radiological Assessment after 178(2)
Surgery of the Thigh
E. Knoepfle
2.13 Knee Joint 180(17)
2.13.1 Indications and Technique 180(1)
S. Trattnig
K.M. Friedrich
K. Bohndorf
2.13.2 Cruciate Ligaments 180(4)
S. Trattnig
K.M. Friedrich
K. Bohndorf
2.13.3 Medial Supporting Structures 184(2)
S. Trattnig
K.M. Friedrich
K. Bohndorf
2.13.4 Lateral Supporting Structures 186(1)
S. Trattnig
K.M. Friedrich
K. Bohndorf
2.13.5 Patella, Quadriceps Muscle, and 186(2)
Anterior Ligaments
S. Trattnig
K.M. Friedrich
K. Bohndorf
2.13.6 Menisci 188(6)
S. Trattnig
K.M. Friedrich
K. Bohndorf
2.13.7 Cartilage 194(1)
S. Trattnig
K.M. Friedrich
K. Bohndorf
2.13.8 Bursae and Plicae 194(1)
S. Trattnig
K.M. Friedrich
K. Bohndorf
2.13.9 Findings after Cartilage Replacement 194(2)
Therapy
S. Trattnig
K.M. Friedrich
K. Bohndorf
2.13.10 Radiological Assessment of Knee 196(1)
Replacement Surgery
E. Knoepfle
2.14 Lower Leg 197(7)
2.14.1 Fractures 197(3)
E.-M. Wagner
2.14.2 Radiological Assessment of Surgery 200(2)
of the Lower Leg
E. Knoepfle
2.14.3 Soft Tissue Injuries and Stress 202(2)
Reactions of the Lower Leg
K. Bohndorf
2.15 Ankle Joint and Foot 204(24)
2.15.1 Anatomy, Variants, and Technique 204(2)
E.-M. Wagner
W. Fischer
F. Sauerwald
N. Jorden
2.15.2 Fractures of the (True) Ankle Joint 206(1)
E.-M. Wagner
2.15.3 Osteochondral Lesions of the Talus 206(2)
K. Bohndorf
2.15.4 Fractures of the Talus and Calcaneus 208(4)
E.-M. Wagner
F. Sauerwald
2.15.5 Fractures and Dislocations of the 212(2)
Tarsal Bones
F. Sauerwald
2.15.6 Fractures and Dislocations of the 214(2)
Forefoot
F. Sauerwald
2.15.7 Radiological Assessment after 216(1)
Surgery of the Ankle and Foot
N. Jorden
2.15.8 Acquired Malalignments 216(2)
N. Jorden
2.15.9 Ligaments 218(4)
W. Fischer
2.15.10 Tendons 222(2)
W. Fischer
S. Seifarth
2.15.11 Impingement Syndromes 224(2)
W. Fischer
2.15.12 Tarsal Tunnel Syndrome 226(1)
W. Fischer
2.15.13 Sinus Tarsi 226(1)
W. Fischer
2.15.14 Plantar Fascia 226(1)
W. Fischer
2.15.15 Plantar Plate and Turf Toe 226(1)
W. Fischer
2.15.16 Morton’s Neuroma 226(2)
W. Fischer
3 Infections of the Bones, Joints, and Soft 228(28)
tissues
3.1 Osteomyelitis and Osteitis 228(18)
3.1.1 Terminology, Classification, and 228(1)
Infection Routes
K. Bohndorf
A.P. Erler
R. Braunschweig
3.1.2 Hematogenous Osteomyelitis 229(5)
K. Bohndorf
A.P. Erler
R. Braunschweig
3.1.3 Chronic Exogenous Osteomyelitis 234(4)
K. Bohndorf
A.P. Erler
R. Braunschweig
3.1.4 Forms of Osteomyelitis (Specific 238(4)
Pathogens)
K. Bohndorf
3.1.5 Infections of the Spine 242(4)
K. Bohndorf
3.2 Soft Tissue Infections 246(4)
T. Grieser
3.2.1 Necrotizing Fasciitis 248(2)
3.3 Septic Arthritis 250(2)
K. Bohndorf
3.3.1 Nonspecific Pathogens 250(2)
3.3.2 Tuberculous Arthritis 252(1)
3.4 Musculoskeletal Inflammations associated 252(4)
with HIV Infections
K. Bohndorf
4 Tumors and Tumorlike Lesions of Bone, Joints, 256(72)
and the Soft Tissues
4.1 General Aspects of Diagnostic Imaging of 256(10)
Skeletal Tumors
B. Jobke
K. Bohndorf
4.1.1 The Role of the Radiologist in 256(1)
Assessing a Suspected Bone Tumor
4.1.2 General Approach to a Suspected 257(1)
Bone Tumor
4.1.3 Description of a Focal Bone Lesion 258(4)
4.1.4 Assessment of the Aggressiveness of 262(2)
a Bone Lesion: Growth Rate
4.1.5 Staging of Bone Tumors 264(1)
4.1.6 Imaging Modalities for Tissue 264(2)
Diagnosis, Assessment of Biological
Activity and Staging of Bone Tumors
4.2 Primary Bone Tumors 266(25)
B. Jobke
K. Bohndorf
4.2.1 Osteogenic Tumors 266(8)
4.2.2 Chondrogenic Tumors 274(8)
4.2.3 Connective Tissue and 282(2)
Fibrohistiocytic Tumors
4.2.4 Ewing’s Sarcoma and Primitive 284(2)
NeuroectodermalTumor
4.2.5 Giant Cell Tumor 286(2)
4.2.6 Vascular Tumors 288(1)
4.2.7 Lipogenic Tumors 288(1)
4.2.8 Miscellaneous Tumors 288(3)
4.3 Tumorlike Lesions 291(15)
4.3.1 Osteoma, Bone Islands, and 291(1)
Osteopoikilosis
K. Bohndorf
H. Rosenthal
4.3.2 Fibrous Cortical Defect and 292(2)
Nonossifying Fibroma
K. Bohndorf
H. Rosenthal
4.3.3 Simple (Juvenile) Bone Cyst 294(1)
K. Bohndorf
H. Rosenthal
4.3.4 Aneurysmal Bone Cyst 294(2)
K. Bohndorf
H. Rosenthal
4.3.5 Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis 296(2)
K. Bohndorf
H. Rosenthal
4.3.6 Fibrous Dysplasia 298(2)
K. Bohndorf
H. Rosenthal
4.3.7 Vascular Malformations of the Bone 300(4)
(so-called Hemangioma)
W.A. Wohlgemuth
K. Bohndorf
4.3.8 Less Common Tumorlike Lesions 304(2)
K. Bohndorf
H. Rosenthal
4.4 Metastases 306(4)
K. Bohndorf
4.4.1 Monitoring 308(2)
4.5 Soft tissue Tumors 310(10)
4.5.1 Introduction 310(2)
B. Jobke
K. Bohndorf
4.5.2 Clinically Important Soft Tissue 312(4)
Tumors, also Partially Amenable to
Classification Using Imaging Procedures
B. Jobke
K. Bohndorf
4.5.3 Follow-up Reviews and Diagnostics for 316(2)
Recurrences of Soft Tissue Tumors
B. Jobke
K. Bohndorf
4.5.4 Vascular Malformations 318(2)
W.A. Wohlgemuth
4.6 Intra-articular Tumors and Tumorlike 320(8)
Lesions
4.6.1 Loose Joint Bodies 320(2)
K. Bohndorf
4.6.2 Synovial Chondromatosis 322(1)
K. Bohndorf
4.6.3 Ganglion and Synovial Cyst 322(4)
M. Gebhard
4.6.4 Lipoma Arborescens 326(1)
K. Bohndorf
4.6.5 Pigmented Villonodular Synovitisi 326(2)
Giant Cell Tumor of the Tendon Sheath
K. Bohndorf
5 Bone Marrow 328(12)
5.1 Normal Bone Marrow 328(2)
I.M. Noebauer-Huhmann
5.1.1 Distribution and Age-dependent 328(1)
Physiological Conversion of Red to Yellow
Marrow
5.1.2 Reconversion of Yellow to Red 328(2)
Marrow/Bone Marrow Hyperplasia
5.2 Anemias and Hemoglobinopathies 330(1)
I.M. Noebauer-Huhmann
5.2.1 Anemias 330(1)
5.2.2 Hemoglobinopathies (Thalassemia, 330(1)
Sickle Cell Anemia)
5.3 Metabolic Bone Marrow Alterations 330(2)
I.M. Noebauer-Huhmann
5.3.1 Hemosiderosis and Hemochromatosis 330(1)
5.3.2 Lipidoses and Lysosomal Storage 330(2)
Diseases
5.3.3 Serous Atrophy 332(1)
5.3.4 Fat Accumulation Secondary to 332(1)
Osteoporosis
5.4 Chronic Myeloproliferative Diseases 332(2)
I.M. Noebauer-Huhmann
5.4.1 Myelodysplastic Syndrome (Also 332(1)
Known as Preleukemia)
5.4.2 Polycythemia Vera 332(1)
5.4.3 Myelofibrosis/Osteomyelofibrosis 332(1)
5.4.4 Essential Thrombocythemia 332(1)
5.4.5 Systemic Mastocytosis 332(2)
5.5 Malignant Disorders of the Bone Marrow 334(4)
I.M. Noebauer-Huhmann
5.5.1 Multiple Myeloma/Solitary 334(2)
Plasmacytoma
5.5.2 Lymphoma 336(2)
5.5.3 Leukemia 338(1)
5.6 Therapy-related Bone Marrow Alterations 338(2)
I.M. Noebauer-Huhmann
6 Osteonecroses of the Skeletal System 340(16)
6.1 Anatomy, Etiology, and Pathogenesis 340(1)
K. Bohndorf
R. Whitehouse
6.2 Bone Infarction 341(3)
R. Whitehouse
K. Bohndorf
6.3 Osteonecrosis 344(8)
R. Whitehouse
K. Bohndorf
6.3.1 Osteonecrosis of the Femoral Head 344(6)
6.3.2 Osteonecrosis of the Lunate 350(1)
6.3.3 Osteonecrosis of the Scaphoid 350(1)
6.3.4 Osteonecrosis of the Vertebrae 350(2)
6.4 Sequelae of Radiotherapy 352(2)
B. Jobke
6.5 Pseudo-osteonecroses 354(2)
K. Bohndorf
R. Whitehouse
7 Osteochondroses 356(16)
7.1 Anatomy, Etiology, and Pathogenesis 356(1)
K. Bohndorf
7.1.1 What Do the Different Forms of 356(1)
Osteochondrosis Have in Common?
7.1.2 To Which Disorders is the Term 357(1)
“Osteochondrosis” Not Applicable?
7.2 Articular Osteochondroses 357(9)
7.2.1 Perthes’ Disease 357(5)
W. Michl
K. Bohndorf
7.2.2 Freiberg’s Disease (Osteochondrosis 362(1)
of the Metatarsal Heads)
K. Bohndorf
7.2.3 Kohler’s Disease Type I 362(1)
K. Bohndorf
7.2.4 Panner’s Disease and Hegemann’s 362(2)
Disease
K. Bohndorf
7.2.5 Osteochondritis Dissecans 364(2)
K. Bohndorf
7.3 Nonarticular (Apophyseal) Osteochondroses 366(2)
K. Bohndorf
7.3.1 What do Apophyseal Osteochondroses 366(2)
Have in Common?
7.3.2 Osgood-Schlatter Disease 368(1)
7.3.3 Sinding-Larsen-Johansson Disease 368(1)
7.3.4 Sever’s Disease 368(1)
7.3.5 “Little Leaguer’s Elbow” 368(1)
7.4 Physeal Osteochondroses 368(4)
W. Michl
7.4.1 Scheuermann’s Disease 368(2)
7.4.2 Blount’s Disease 370(2)
8 Metabolic, Hormonal, and Toxic Bone Disorders 372(14)
8.1 Osteoporosis 372(4)
T. Grieser
8.1.1 Classification and Clinical 372(1)
Presentation of Osteoporosis
8.1.2 Bone Density Testing 373(1)
8.1.3 Radiographic Findings in 374(2)
Osteoporosis
8.2 Rickets and Osteomalacia 376(2)
B. Jobke
8.3 Hyperparathyroidism and Hypoparathyroidism 378(2)
B. Jobke
8.3.1 Hyperparathyroidism 378(2)
8.3.2 Hypoparathyroidism 380(1)
8.4 Renal Osteodystrophy 380(1)
B. Jobke
8.5 Drug-induced Changes to the Bone 380(2)
B. Jobke
8.5.1 Corticosteroids 380(2)
8.5.2 Other Drugs 382(1)
8.6 Amyloidosis 382(1)
B. Jobke
8.7 Other Osteopathic Diseases 382(4)
K. Bohndorf
8.7.1 Hemophilic Arthropathy 382(2)
8.7.2 Acromegaly 384(2)
9 Congenital Disorders of Bone and Joint 386(12)
Development
9.1 Bone Age Assessment in Growth Disorders 386(1)
W. Michl
9.2 Congenital Dysplasia of the Hip 386(2)
W. Michl
9.3 Congenital Deformities of the Foot 388(2)
W. Michl
9.4 Patellofemoral Dysplasia 390(1)
J. Zentner
9.5 Scoliosis and Kyphosis 390(1)
W. Michl
9.5.1 Kyphosis 390(1)
9.5.2 Scoliosis 391(1)
9.6 Congenital Disorders of Skeletal 391(7)
Development
W. Michl
9.6.1 Diagnostic Pathway for 392(4)
Classification of Skeletal Dysplasia
9.6.2 The Most Common Neonatal Skeletal 396(2)
Dysplasias
10 Rheumatic Disorders 398(68)
10.1 Introduction 398(10)
10.1.1 Common Pathogenic Features 398(1)
F. Roemer
10.1.2 Radiographic Features of the 398(4)
Peripheral Joints and their Role in
Differential Diagnosis
K. Bohndorf
G.M. Lingg
N. Jorden
10.1.3 Radiographic Features of the Spine 402(6)
and Sacroiliac Joints and Their
Differential Diagnosis
K. Bohndorf
G.M. Lingg
N. Jorden
10.2 Osteoarthritis of the Peripheral Joints 408(9)
F. Roemer
10.2.1 Basic Principles of Imaging 408(4)
Techniques
10.2.2 Individual Joints 412(4)
10.2.3 Treatment of Osteoarthritis 416(1)
10.3 Degeneration of the Spine 417(19)
R. Fessl
10.3.1 Anatomy, Variants, and Information 417(2)
on Imaging and Technique
10.3.2 Clinical Presentation of the 419(2)
Degenerative Spine
10.3.3 Degenerative Disk Disease 421(5)
10.3.4 Juxtadiscal Bony Alterations 426(2)
10.3.5 Facet Joint and Uncovertebral 428(4)
Osteoarthritis and Degeneration-based
Spondylolisthesis
10.3.6 Ligamentous and Soft Tissue Changes 432(1)
10.3.7 Spinal Canal Stenosis 432(2)
10.3.8 Instability, Segmental 434(2)
Hypermobility, and Functional Studies
10.4 Diffuse Idiopathic Skeletal Hyperostosis 436(1)
F. Roemer
10.5 Rheumatoid Arthritis and Juvenile 437(6)
Idiopathic Arthritis
F.M. Kainberger
10.5.1 Rheumatoid Arthritis 437(5)
10.5.2 Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis 442(1)
10.6 Spondylarthritis 443(6)
F.M. Kainberger
10.6.1 Ankylosing Spondylitis 444(2)
10.6.2 Reactive Arthritis 446(1)
10.6.3 Psoriatic Arthritis 446(2)
10.6.4 Enteropathic Arthritis 448(1)
10.6.5 Undifferentiated Spondylarthritis 448(1)
10.7 Chronic Recurrent Multifocal 449(5)
Osteomyelitis and SAPHO Syndrome
K. Bohndorf
10.7.1 Chronic Recurrent Multifocal 449(2)
Osteomyelitis
10.7.2 SAPHO 451(3)
10.8 Articular Changes in Inflammatory 454(4)
Systemic Connective Tissue Diseases
(Collagenoses)
G.M. Lingg
10.8.1 Systemic Lupus Erythematosus 454(1)
10.8.2 Progressive Systemic Sclerosis 454(2)
10.8.3 Polymyositis and Dermatomyositis 456(1)
10.8.4 Mixed Collagenoses 456(1)
10.8.5 Vasculitis 456(2)
10.9 Crystal-induced Arthropathies, 458(8)
Osteopathies, and Periarthropathies
G.M. Lingg
K. Bohndorf
10.9.1 Gout 458(4)
10.9.2 Calcium Pyrophosphate Deposition 462(2)
Disease (CPPD)
10.9.3 Hydroxyapatite Crystal Deposition 464(2)
Disease
11 Miscellaneous Bone, Joint, and Soft Tissue 466(20)
Disorders
11.1 Paget’s Disease 466(2)
H. Douis
M. Davies
11.2 Sarcoidosis 468(2)
H. Douis
M. Davies
11.3 Hypertrophic Osteoarthropathy 470(1)
H. Douis
M. Davies
11.4 Melorheostosis 470(2)
H. Douis
M. Davies
11.5 Calcifications and Ossifications of the 472(4)
Soft Tissues
K. Bohndorf
T. Grieser
11.5.1 Soft Tissue Calcifications 472(2)
11.5.2 Soft Tissue Ossifications 474(2)
11.6 Compartment Syndrome 476(2)
T. Grieser
11.7 Rhabdomyolysis 478(1)
T. Grieser
11.8 Peripheral Nerve Entrapment and Nerve 478(3)
Compression Syndromes
T. Grieser
11.9 Neuropathic Osteoarthropathy and 481(3)
Diabetic Foot
K. Bohndorf
11.9.1 Neuropathic Osteoarthropathy 481(1)
11.9.2 Diabetic Foot 482(2)
11.10 Adhesive Capsulitis 484(2)
K. Bohndorf
12 Interventions Involving the Bone, Soft 486(10)
Tissues, and Joints
12.1 Arthrography 486(1)
N. Jorden
12.1.1 Indications 486(1)
12.1.2 Contraindications 486(1)
12.1.3 Technique 486(1)
12.1.4 Complications 486(1)
12.2 Biopsy 486(2)
K. Bohndorf
A. Seifarth
12.2.1 Indications 486(1)
12.2.2 Contraindications 487(1)
12.2.3 Technique 487(1)
12.2.4 Complications 488(1)
12.2.5 Results 488(1)
12.3 Drains 488(2)
K. Bohndorf
A. Seifarth
12.3.1 Indications 488(1)
12.3.2 Contraindications 488(1)
12.3.3 Technique 488(2)
12.3.4 Complications 490(1)
12.3.5 Results 490(1)
12.4 Nerve Root Block 490(1)
K. Bohndorf
A. Seifarth
12.4.1 Indications 490(1)
12.4.2 Contraindications 490(1)
12.4.3 Procedure 490(1)
12.4.4 Complications 490(1)
12.4.5 Trial Nerve Root Block 491(1)
12.5 Facet Block 491(1)
K. Bohndorf
A. Seifarth
12.6 Vertebroplasty, Kyphoplasty, and 492(2)
Sacroplasty
K. Bohndorf
A. Seifarth
12.6.1 Indications 492(1)
12.6.2 Imaging Procedures before Diagnosis 492(1)
12.6.3 Contraindications 492(1)
12.6.4 Complications 492(1)
12.6.5 Technique 492(2)
12.6.6 Results 494(1)
12.7 Laser Therapy and Radiofrequency Ablation 494(2)
K. Bohndorf
A. Seifarth
Index 496

Taimour

Taimour is a co-founder of this blog. He likes to learn new things and have a passion for sharing with others.

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