Nutrition and Skeletal Muscle PDF Free Download
Skeletal muscle (SM) increases during postnatal development through a process of hypertrophy of the individual muscle fibers; a similar process may be induced in adult SM in response to contractile activity like strength exercises, and to androgens and β-adrenergic agonists . SM remains relatively constant during the third and fourth decades of life but begins to decline at B45 years of age in both genders . In other words, age exerts a strong influence on SM, but gender does as well . Several studies have demonstrated the effects of age and gender on SM, and some have examined the effects on its distribution [2,56]. Perhaps the most relevant study on this issue was published by Janssen et al. , who used an in vivo method to study body composition using, particularly, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to provide precise and reliable measurements of SM and its distribution in a broad sample of Caucasian men and women. The results of this study reported new findings on the behavior of SM mass during the lifecycle in both men and women subjects. Due to the growing awareness of the importance of SM on functionality and other clinical entities in older age groups , there is a need to establish reference values for relative SM in young adult populations using the most precise and accurate methods available, and considering the factors of age, gender, and ethnicity. It is important to stress that few countries have been able to conduct national-level studies of this kind [10,1719]. Some published works based on small samples of healthy young adult subjects reported data on SM [2,6,2021] and proposed cutoff points for diagnosing sarcopenia—i.e., low SM mass—and sarcopenia syndrome [9,10,17,2242].
Print Length: 418 pages
1 edition (October 24, 2018)
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