Bone and Muscle: Structure, Force, and Motion (The Human Body) PDF Free Download
Bone and muscle do more than just hold a body together. They underlie every move, every touch, every step—in essence, every action undertaken. Even the inhalation and exhalation of life-sustaining breath is made possible by muscles that support the lungs, which are protected by the bones that comprise the rib cage. This volume presents a detailed examination of the human skeletal system and related muscle systems of the human body. Using an easily understandable format, this book creates for the reader an accessible map of the skeletal system and the contributing musculature that enable motion and organ function. The human skeleton provides support and protection for the body’s organs and facilitates movement by providing the framework for the arms and legs to swing free. All the bones in the body are connected by joints, some of which contain fl uid and hence are mobile and permit complex motions such as twisting. While such features are common to many other members of the Animal kingdom, the human skeleton has several distinct features that are found only in the Primate order, the group to which humans belong. The specialized bones in the human hand, for example, enable the action of opposable thumbs, a trait that has played a vital role in allowing humans to grasp objects and to use tools. As humans evolved, their bone structure and musculature began to change. Standing upright and the ability to travel bipedally are credited with forming the fi rst major directional course in human evolution.