This book was written as a companion text to our popular Review of Ophthalmology text. While that book serves as a detailed and comprehensive review manual with an outline format and multiple-choice questions, this book’s purpose is to review practical cases in ophthalmology. Such a case-based approach to learning is something that we both encountered early in medical school because our curriculum was structured around it. The case-based method is a valuable technique of learning and reinforcing core concepts. We originally conceived the idea for this book while writing our first text: The Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary Illustrated Manual of Ophthalmology. We felt that a case review book was a natural extension of the material in the atlas, and patient scenarios would be a realistic and fun way in which to review the subject matter. Although a number of case-based books exist that cover a variety of ophthalmic subspecialties, our goal was to create a more comprehensive review of fundamental eye disorders. The book is composed of 6 chapters that reflect the core topics in ophthalmology. The 116 cases were selected to test the: (1) most common, (2) vision-threatening, and (3) life-threatening ocular conditions that all ophthalmologists must recognize and be adept at treating. Each case is introduced with a figure and brief patient history. A series of questions probe the reader’s knowledge of the condition by asking about further history, expected findings, differential diagnosis, workup, management, and prognosis. Additional information and figures are often presented as the case unfolds, and the suggested answers are found on the next page. We hope you enjoy this case method of learning and find Case Reviews in Ophthalmology to be a useful aid for assessing and expanding your knowledge of ophthalmic diseases. We wish you success in your future careers.